CRISPR-Cas3 could be the new gene editing tool we need to finally eliminate diseases from our genome. Here's how it works.
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CRISPR-Cas3 innovation holds promise for disease cures, advancing science
"The CRISPR-Cas3 technology also allows researchers to scan through the genome and detect non-coding genetic elements, which make up 98 percent of our genome but have not been well characterized. These elements act as regulators that control the expression of proteins in coding genes, and theyve been found to be pivotal for cell differentiation and sex determination. CRISPR-Cas3 could be used to efficiently screen for non-coding genetic elements and erase long sequences of DNA. Once erased, researchers may look to see what functions are missing in an organism, to determine the role of that genetic element."
CRISPR gene editing produces unwanted DNA deletions
"CRISPR -Cas9 gene editing relies on the Cas9 enzyme to cut DNA at a particular target site. The cell then attempts to reseal this break using DNA repair mechanisms. These mechanisms do not always work perfectly, and sometimes segments of DNA will be deleted or rearranged, or unrelated bits of DNA will become incorporated into the chromosome."
New DNA shredder technique goes beyond CRISPRs scissors
"The new tool uses a Type I CRISPR, which is much more common in bacteria than the Type II variety that includes Cas9. Type I CRISPR has never been used in any eukaryotic cells, and employs a riboprotein complex known as Cascade for seeking its target and an enzyme called Cas3 for shredding DNA. The challenging protein optimization and purification side of the work was done in the laboratory of Cornell University professor Ailong Ke, Ph.D., a co-corresponding author of the paper. Cornell graduate student Adam Dolan and U-M senior research specialist Zhonggang Hou, Ph.D. are the papers first authors."
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