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Why Its HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market

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 Biology   |   Environmental   |   Science
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Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video!

Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members.


To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:

grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual


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Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer: Peter Reich
Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julin Gmez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:



Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10.

Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320.

Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B)

Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website.

Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. 42 pages

Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005.

Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.

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