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Are These Butterflies The Same?

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 Biology   |   Environmental   |   Science
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Watch "This Exists" on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/thisexists

Please subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1
And please support MinuteEarth on Patreon - https://patreon.com/minuteearth

A tale of how two butterflies became one...
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Created by Henry Reich
Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich
Video Concept and Writing: Rebecca Deatsman
Narrated by: Emily Elert
Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
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MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes!

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References

Andy Warren, pers. comm. July 29, 2014. https://twitter.com/rdeatsman/status/494195315449532417

Brock, J. P., & Kaufman, K. (2003). Field Guide to Butterflies of North America.T. Hillstar Editions LC Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, NY.

Platt, A.P. and Brower, L.P. 1968. Mimetic Versus Disruptive Coloration in Intergrading Populations of Limenitis arthemis and Astyanax Butterflies. Evolution, Vol. 22, No. 4: 699-718. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2406897

Platt, A.P. 1987. Banded admirals from western Maryland: analysis of the Limenitis (Basilarchia) arthemis-astyanax complex (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) at green ridge state forest. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 89: 633-645. http://biostor.org/reference/56212

Taxonomy of Red-Spotted Purple: http://www.butterfliesofamerica.com/limenitis_arthemis_astyanax.htm
Taxonomy of White Admiral: http://www.butterfliesofamerica.com/limenitis_a_arthemis.htm
Info and Photos of Red-Spotted Purple: http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/bfly/red-spotted_purple.htm

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Photo Credits:

White Admiral - Photo by: Wikimedia user Limulus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saskatoon-butterfly.jpg

Limenitis arthemis astyanax - Wikimedia user Ks0stm
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Limenitis_arthemis_astyanax_side_view.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Limenitis_arthemis_astyanax_in_Hot_Springs_National_Park.jpg

Red Spotted Purple - Wikimedia user Saxophlute
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Spotted_Purple.JPG

River rocks - Public Domain Photo
http://pixabay.com/es/canad%C3%A1-ca%C3%B1%C3%B3n-r%C3%ADo-rocas-el-agua-254328/

Pipevine Swallowtail - Public Domain Photo
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Male_Pipevine_Swallowtail_Megan_McCarty06.jpg

Poison Symbol - Public Domain Image
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Skull_and_crossbones.svg

Monarch Butterfly - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
http://www.public-domain-image.com/full-image/fauna-animals-public-domain-images-pictures/insects-and-bugs-public-domain-images-pictures/butterflies-and-moths-pictures/monarch-butterfly/male-monarch-butterfly-on-green-plant-danaus-plexippus.jpg-free-photograph.html

Monarch butterfly catterpillar - Ryan E. Poplin
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Danaus_plexippus_caterpillar.jpg

Lagopus muta Winter - Ómar Runólfsson
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lagopus_muta_-Iceland-8.jpg

Lagopus muta Summer - Wikimedia user Boaworm
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fj%C3%A4llripa_Sommardr%C3%A4kt_Island.jpg

Sexual dimorphism Mandarin - Francis C. Franklin
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mandarin_Pair.jpg

Gray Wolf - Public Domain Photo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Howlsnow.jpg

Maltese Dog -  Wikimedia user SheltieBoy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:01_AKC_Maltese_Dog_Show_2013.jpg

Limenitis lorquini - Public Domain Photo
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lorquinsadmiral2.jpg

Limenitis archippus - Gordon E. Robertson
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Viceroy_2.jpg

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